By the end of the 19th century, too, it had taken its place among the powers of the world—its fortunes so interrelated with those of other nations that inevitably it became involved in two world wars and, following these conflicts, with the problems of Europe and East Asia.
The Imagists, among them Ezra Pound, sought to boil language down to its absolute essence. A Tale of Truth, published in London in He more or less invented his own poetic rhythms, just as he coined his own words for things which had, for him, no suitable descriptor.
Potential subjects for poetry were now limitless, and poets took full advantage of this new freedom. Thirty years later it was more thanIrony, playfulness, black humor[ edit ] Linda Hutcheon claimed postmodern fiction as a whole could be characterized by the ironic quote marks, that much of it can be taken as tongue-in-cheek.
At the same time, the psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud had come into mainstream acceptance. For example, it contains characters named Mike Fallopian and Stanley Koteks and a radio station called KCUF, while the novel as a whole has a serious subject and a complex structure.
Moreover, we are now aware of the wealth of oral literary traditions already existing on the continent among the numerous different Native American groups.
The First American Novel[ edit ] In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the first American novels were published. Experimentation and individualism became virtues, where in the past they were often heartily discouraged.
The War demonstrated that no guiding spirit rules the events of the world, and that absolute destruction was kept in check by only the tiniest of margins.
Born in Missouri, T. The cynicism and alienation of the first flowering of Modernist literature could not persist. It is a capable way of writing realism in a world where philosophical definitions discourage such a term. Mary McCarthy became a widely read social satirist and essayist.
Ultimately, this is seen as the highest stratification of criticism among scholars. Class distinction remains arguably the most difficult bridge to cross in terms of forming a truly equitable society. At the same time, Eliot fully displays all the conventions which one expects in Modernist literature.
In broad terms, the period was marked by sudden and unexpected breaks with traditional ways of viewing and interacting with the world. A popular press quickly developed to supply that demand. Early American literature struggled to find a unique voice in existing literary genre, and this tendency was reflected in novels.
The Waste Land is often cited as a means of distinguishing modern and postmodern literature. Indeed, a break with traditions is one of the fundamental constants of the Modernist stance.
Other religious writers included Increase Mather and William Bradfordauthor of the journal published as a History of Plymouth Plantation, — African-Americans took part in the Harlem Renaissance, with the likes of Langston Hughes at the forefront of a vibrant new idiom in American poetry.
Nicholas Noyes was also known for his doggerel verse. In character development, both modern and postmodern literature explore subjectivismturning from external reality to examine inner states of consciousness, in many cases drawing on modernist examples in the " stream of consciousness " styles of Virginia Woolf and James Joyceor explorative poems like The Waste Land by T.
Modernism introduced a new kind of narration to the novel, one that would fundamentally change the entire essence of novel writing. In it, one is confronted by biblical-sounding verse forms, quasi-conversational interludes, dense and frequent references which frustrate even the most well-read readers, and sections that resemble prose more than poetry.
During the 18th century, writing shifted from the Puritanism of Winthrop and Bradford to Enlightenment ideas of reason. With its open, experimental form and strong oral emphasis, Howl sounded a departure from the well-shaped lyric.
Colden also wrote a book on botany, which attracted the attention of Linnaeus, and he maintained a long term correspondence with Benjamin Franklin. These novels are of the Sentimental genre, characterized by overindulgence in emotion, an invitation to listen to the voice of reason against misleading passions, as well as an optimistic overemphasis on the essential goodness of humanity.
But its loose, picaresque, quasi-autobiographical form also meshed well with posts fiction. Burroughsand Jack Kerouac. To some extent, this alienation fed into the stereotype of the aloof artist, producing nothing of commercial value for the market.
For instance, when the English conquered New Amsterdam inthey renamed it New York and changed the administrative language from Dutch to English. Two World Wars in the span of a generation effectively shell-shocked all of Western civilization. New possibilities for action empowered individuals and groups in the pursuit of personal freedom and individual self-expression.
For Hemingway, this meant the abandonment of all ornamental language. As literary periods go, Modernism displays a relatively strong sense of cohesion and similarity across genres and locales.
Toklas has been interpreted as postmodern. For a description of the oral and written literatures of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, see Native American literature.In American Literature, the group of writers and thinkers known as the Lost Generation has become synonymous with Modernism.
In the wake of the First World War, several American artists chose to live abroad as they pursued their creative impulses. American literature is literature written or produced in the United States and its preceding colonies (for specific discussions of poetry and theater, see Poetry of the United States and Theater in the United States).Before the founding of the United States, the British colonies on the eastern coast of the present-day United States were heavily influenced.
The post World War II period had an enormous impact on American society and literature. Many important events occurred and affected directly to the movement of American literature. During this period, American Literature reflected the movement of disillusionment, and portrayed the lost generation.
"American Literature since " (Pages ) REALISM if their immediate predecessors had drawn on classically tragic allusions in deepening their themes, Among this literature's emblems is the Internet, in which multiple realities--including those of different cultures and different identities--virtually coexist.".
And that's not all: by representing the characters as animals (e.g., the Germans are cats and the Jews are mice), it joins Animal Farm in showing how effective allegory can be in tackling serious themes.
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