Researchers agree that the apes have acquired fairly large vocabularies in American Sign Language and in artificial languages but they have drawn quite different conclusions in addressing the following questions: The Evolution of Primate Behavior. Apes and Language Apes and Language: Many of my sources also exhibit this trait.
He would use the symbol first and then gesture, a practice often followed by young deaf children Greenfield. There is considerable evidence that apes have invented creative names. From Conditioned Response to Symbol. The above-mentioned plastic tokens are those which Premack used to train a chimpanzee named Sarah.
The Nova program Can Chimps Talk? James Rachels argues Apes and language essay Darwinism implies that we should treat the other great apes we are also great apes as equals Rachels The other thing Terrace discovered from the videotapes was that Nim interrupted his trainers more than human children interrupt their parents.
Gardner were conducting double-blind experiments Apes and Language 3 that prevented any possibility of cuing Fouts,p.
Although some early ape language studies had not been rigorously controlled to eliminate cuing, even as early as the s R. Why Chimps Can Read. For instance, to ask for Quest for Fire, a film about early primates discovering fire, Kanzi began to use symbols for "campfire" and "TV" Eckholm, This language differs from sign language in that "the permanence of the sentence not only makes Apes and language essay possible to study language without a memory problem, but to study memory in the context of language by regulating the duration for which the sentence remains on the board" D.
All of these chimpanzees "signed to friends and to strangers.
This review of the literature on apes and language focuses on these four questions. Sinceresearchers have diligently guarded against cuing. They also reported that Washoe began to use combinations of signs spontaneously after learning only about eight or ten of them. State University of New York Press, Columbia University Press, Can apes create sentences?
A bonobo named Kanzi learned at a faster rate than the chimpanzees; he learned his first words by merely watching lessons directed at his mother. George Johnson summarizes the views of both sides in his article Chimp Talk Debate: Are you responsible for what you tame?
Eugene Linden reported that Viki and Washoe thought of themselves as human; when categorizing humans and animals, they placed themselves with humans and other chimpanzees with animals Linden One of the most remarkable developments in this research occurred when Washoe adopted an infant named Loulis.
Extraordinary claims have been made by some researchers about the linguistic capabilities of their subjects, mostly chimpanzees.
Both groups have problems with the research methods of the other. One problem is that we have no way of communicating with apes unless we teach them some language that humans also know; the only other possibility is them teaching us their code.
Visual communication is important especially for higher primates, who look at what they are paying attention to, as we do. Can apes create sentences? A Journey into the World of Baboons.
Lana The chimpanzee Lana learned to use another language system, an electronic keyboard.
Kanzi also created his own rules when combining gestures and symbols. In the other camp are the researchers who treat their apes more like experimental subjects; these people tend to focus on the failures of their subjects, and the differences between ape and human language.
He was observed practicing his signs in the absence of their referents Terrace In her review of Aping Language, Patricia Greenfield argues that Wallman exaggerated differences between ape and human language, used human language as a standard to measure ape language by, ignored published results that did not agree with his thesis, and used unscientific evidence to discuss accomplishments by apes Greenfield Basic rights for all great apes If apes can use language, in some sense, then what is the significance of this?
There have apparently been no language experiments with gibbons or siamangs. What all of these people are saying is that there should not be an arbitrary line drawn between humans and other great apes.
Perhaps the best evidence that apes are not merely responding to cues is that they have signed to one another spontaneously, without trainers present. Then she was presented with her word for apple, and the same set of features.
The bonobo Kanzi has requested particular films by combining symbols on a computer in a creative way.Language in Apes: How Much Do They Know and How Much Should We Teach Them. If you find yourself flummoxed by the terminology, (Linden ). I will return to these properties later in the essay.
Why teach language to apes? Why should we try to teach language to apes? In their introduction to Language in Primates, the editors. Introduction When the human brain is compared with the brains of apes there are several obvious differences; the centers for the sense of smell and foot control are larger in apes than in humans, but the centers for hand control, airway control, vocalization, language and thought are larger in humans.
Apes and Language: A Literature Review Over the past thirty years, researchers have demonstrated that the great apes (Chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) resemble humans in language abilities more than had been thought possible.
This review of the literature on apes and language focuses on these four questions. How Spontaneously Have Apes Used Language? In an influential article, Terrace, Petitto, Sanders, and Bever argued that the apes in Essay. Apes and Language: A Chicago Style Sample Paper Karen Shaw English Professor Bell March 22, Shaw 2 Apes and Language: A Literature Review Over the past thirty years, researchers have demonstrated that the great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) resemble humans in language abilities more than had been thought.
Read this Psychology Research Paper and over 88, other research documents. Apes and Language. Apes and Language: A Review of the Literature By Karen Shaw For Professor Dyer’s Class March 2, Over /5(1).Download